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The Institutional Animal Care and Use 191 Committee of Kyoto University and Leo Pharma A/S permitted all experiments cheap glucovance express diabetes insipidus complications. Patients characteristics are summarized in Table E1 order 5 mg glucovance with visa diabetic diet hospital, 214 and the whole record is on the market in Table E2. The gentle blue line outlines 305 the extent of overlap expected by chance (the 95% confidence region of 306 hypergeometric distribution beneath the null hypothesis), such that any line above it 307 indicates a major stage of overlap and farther distances from it show the next 308 overlap. Flg-mutated and flaky-tail 351 mice cluster collectively and farther apart from other fashions. A 446 abstract of scientific and laboratory characteristics of all analyzed fashions is 447 offered in Table 2. Thus, the choice of which murine mannequin to make use of 478 is determined by the translational focus of the investigator, however warning must be 479 exercised when translating murine knowledge to human inflammatory skin ailments. Dendrogram making use of unsupervised clustering utilizing 507 Pearsons correlation distance and McQuitty agglomeration. The world burden of skin illness 520 in 2010: an evaluation of the prevalence and impact of skin situations. The translational revolution and 523 use of biologics in sufferers with inflammatory skin ailments. New concept of the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis: 526 interaction among the barrier, allergy, and pruritus as a trinity. Dupilumab improves the 549 molecular signature in skin of sufferers with moderate-to-extreme atopic 550 dermatitis. Cyclosporine in sufferers with 552 atopic dermatitis modulates activated inflammatory pathways and 553 reverses epidermal pathology. Efficacy and security of dupilumab in 559 adults with moderate-to-extreme atopic dermatitis inadequately managed 560 by topical treatments: a randomised, placebo-managed, dose-ranging 561 part 2b trial. Possible new therapeutic strategy to 567 regulate atopic dermatitis by way of upregulating filaggrin expression. A homozygous nonsense mutation in 574 the gene for Tmem79, a part for the lamellar granule secretory 575 system, produces spontaneous eczema in an experimental mannequin of 576 atopic dermatitis. Tmem79/Matt is the matted 578 mouse gene and is a predisposing gene for atopic dermatitis in human 579 subjects. Flaky tail mouse denotes 582 human atopic dermatitis within the steady state and by topical application with 583 Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract. Altered stratum corneum barrier and 30 ninety six 2 Manuscripts 586 enhanced percutaneous immune responses in filaggrin-null mice. Immunohistological comparison of 589 cutaneous pathology of three consultant murine atopic dermatitis 590 fashions. Characterization of a hapten-induced, 592 murine mannequin with multiple features of atopic dermatitis: structural, 593 immunologic, and biochemical adjustments following single versus multiple 594 oxazolone challenges. Smad3 596 signal transducer regulates skin irritation and particular IgE response in 597 murine mannequin of atopic dermatitis. Repeated epicutaneous exposures to 600 ovalbumin progressively induce atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice. Genome-extensive expression 614 profiling of five mouse fashions identifies similarities and variations with 615 human psoriasis. Epidermal filaggrin deficiency 628 mediates elevated systemic Th17 immune response. Molecular profiling of 631 contact dermatitis skin identifies allergen-dependent variations in 32 ninety eight 2 Manuscripts 632 immune response. Nonlesional atopic 644 dermatitis skin is characterized by broad terminal differentiation defects 645 and variable immune abnormalities. BioMart and Bioconductor: a 656 powerful hyperlink between organic databases and microarray knowledge evaluation. Patients with atopic 659 dermatitis have attenuated and distinct contact hypersensitivity responses 660 to common allergens in skin. Identification of novel immune and 662 barrier genes in atopic dermatitis via laser capture 663 microdissection. Progressive activation of 669 T(H)2/T(H)22 cytokines and selective epidermal proteins characterizes 670 acute and continual atopic dermatitis. Intraindividual genome expression 673 evaluation reveals a particular molecular signature of psoriasis and eczema. The insulin-like progress 694 factor 1 receptor is expressed by epithelial cells with proliferative potential 695 in human dermis and skin appendages: correlation of elevated 696 expression with epidermal hyperplasia. Differential Features 699 between Chronic Skin Inflammatory Diseases Revealed in Skin- seven-hundred Humanized Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis Mouse Models. Topical vitamin 707 D3 and low-calcemic analogs induce thymic stromal lymphopoietin in 708 mouse keratinocytes and set off an atopic dermatitis. Activation of epidermal toll- 714 like receptor 2 enhances tight junction function: implications for atopic 715 dermatitis and skin barrier restore. Mast cells and vasculature in 723 atopic dermatitis-potential stimulus of neoangiogenesis. Causes of epidermal filaggrin reduction and their 734 position within the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Contrasting pathogenesis 740 of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis-half I: scientific and pathologic concepts.

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However purchase 50 mg glucovance diabetes signs feet, in dermatitis in infants glucovance 5 mg line diabetes type 2 obesity, and rough tabletops and paper a research with 12 primary compounds a optimistic correla- have aggravated hand dermatitis in submit-workplace work- tion was found between growing dissociation con- ers [45, 151]. In a cohort of 111 workplace apprentices, the stant (pKa) and pores and skin irritation capability on human level prevalence of irritant or atopic eczema of the volunteers,measured both visually or by reflectance Table 9. Handling of paper,par- weak correlation between hand eczema and atopic ticularly carbonless copy paper, and low relative hu- mucosal signs. Histologically, In an epidemiological research on 246 shoemakers in dry pores and skin reveals some similarities to subclinical ecze- 5 completely different factories, the prevalence of occupational ma. Clinically, overt irritation might due to this fact be pre- contact dermatitis was found to be 14. Solvents, adhesives, varnishes, and mechani- transepidermal water loss, Loffler and Effendy [139] cal forces were considered to be the main irritants found enhanced pores and skin susceptibility solely in individu- [147]. Cold windy climates produce drying of the pores and skin If scientific indicators of an atopic pores and skin diathesis are because of the lowered capability of the stratum corneum carefully evaluated this may be of help in estimating to retain water at lower temperatures. An eczema-like important correlation was found between a excessive picture is seen in aged persons. In a wash research, score (>10 points on the Erlangen atopy score) and onerous water with a higher content material of calcium was the event of hand dermatitis [21]. Differences in mates sweating and friction might induce a clothing methodology account partially for the discrepancies in dermatitis, which appears to be a contact allergy. Most sufferers reported delicate burning or stinging and Individuals with sensitive, hyperirritable pores and skin do ex- some had developed the condition several occasions solely ist. Racial differences in cutaneous ir- 15 ritability have been properly documented [70, seventy two, 227, 228]. Using nonin- Relevant endogenous factors embody atopy and pores and skin vasive methods corresponding to transepidermal water loss sensitivity. Hyperirritable pores and skin can al- Germany [22, 23], and one in Osnabrueck, Germany so develop secondarily through the course of hand or [207]. Status eczematicus and angry again syn- these studies, persons with a historical past of hay fever drome fall into this class. Clinical Aspects of Irritant Contact Dermatitis Chapter 15 279 In a recent research on human volunteers it was dem- extra reactive to them compared to regular or onstrated that previous chronic irritant contact der- hyporeactive pores and skin [71, 88]. Based not appear to have extra sensitive pores and skin than males [30, on Ficks law of penetration,the thickness of the stra- 131]. Accordingly,in a recent that the buoyant density of black stratum corneum giant multicenter research in 5,971 people male sex was larger, which may point out a extra compact bar- was a weak but important risk issue for a clinically rier. There nol and the mean corneocyte floor space: the small- is now growing evidence that, for several com- er the corneocyte space,the lower the irritancy thresh- pounds, percutaneous penetration in the outdated age outdated [ninety six]. They also found a optimistic correlation group is less than in the younger one [182, 184]. In one between the minimal blistering time with ammoni- research, susceptibility to detergents was found to in- um hydroxide and the pores and skin floor contour. This was crease with age, whereas the pustulogenic effect of also true for other irritants. The similar group found no Regional variations in irritability are related to difference with the irritants thymoquinone and cro- differences in keratinization and to the density of ton aldehyde. Based on to the latter group having a greater stratum corneum recent reports,plainly the ceramides and glyco- barrier in opposition to water [238]. In animals fed a food regimen monium hydroxide,blistering occurred extra rapidly free of important fatty acids,administering linoleic ac- in older persons. There is duced stronger (visual) reactions in the younger co- also some scientific evidence that this may have an ef- hort (Fig. A comparability of cumulative irritation fect in humans, but therapeutic trials with linoleic (7. Further particulars on inhabitants sidered to be essential in the regulation of the pores and skin differences regarding pores and skin construction, physiology, and barrier. Inverse correlations were found between susceptibility to irritants are given in recent reviews baseline ceramide 6 and the 24-h erythema score for [27, one hundred, 181, 202]. If the hardening stimulus reactive when examined on scarified or stripped pores and skin, stops, the pores and skin reveals desquamation and reactivity i. It appears to be an irritant-specific phe- the basis for the assumption that these people nomenon as a result of reactivity to other irritants might might release extra inflammatory mediators or could also be even be elevated [149]. None is basically so easy and reliable that it may be used clinically on a big scale, and the diagnostic value of the older checks corresponding to Burckhardts alkali re- sistance check has been overestimated, significantly in regard to their capability to distinguish between aller- gic and irritant eczema. This check has lately been validated in two cohorts of 1,111 in- dividuals with former occupational dermatoses (now healed). Intensive swelling of the stratum corneum and edema ful to detect constitutional risks, namely atopic pores and skin. Some sufferers with healed irritant contact dermatitis complain of experiencing ongoing elevated pores and skin sensitivity. This occupational hazard could also be mim- Clinical Aspects of Irritant Contact Dermatitis Chapter 15 281 icked by the check. The very important importance of a physiolog- guideline, the irritancy potential of recent chemicals ical, acidic pH for barrier homeostasis, especially for should be assessed, avoiding animal checks every time the formation of the lamellar lipid bilayer system, attainable [thirteen�15, 17, fifty four, 112, 246]. Although mechanisms of irritants have been much less studied, but some people appear to have hyperirritable pores and skin lately new pathogenetic ideas began to emerge per se, one finds that the correlation between some [58,206,242]. As irritants are very diverse in chemical irritants is rather weak if a lot of irritants construction, pH, penetration, and other features, they of very completely different chemical construction are used. In one are typically assumed to have very completely different modes research, we found a good correlation between the re- of action in the pores and skin. Concentrations vary from [33] and oxidative stress [241] has lately been dem- zero.

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Optimal skin screening frequency (see analysis query 9): � There is a big financial burden related to occupational contact dermatitis arising 46 from medical care costs order glucovance paypal diabetic ketoacidosis symptoms, loss of productivity and day without work work cheap 50mg glucovance overnight delivery diabetes type 1 uk statistics. Future analysis that compares the cost of conducting screening with the cost financial savings related to earlier prognosis would help to inform recommendations on optimal screening frequency. Prework (barrier) lotions (see analysis query 12): � the position of barrier lotions in well being care settings stays controversial. Additional studies are required to find out whether or not advantages do exist from their use and what harms might outcome. More information on product formulation�particular outcomes might present steering for future recommendations. Currently, solely professional opinion exists on the advantages of cotton glove liners for secondary and tertiary prevention of occupational contact dermatitis. Identification and testing of haptens not present in normal trays related to the well being care setting should be investigated additional to verify additive value of custom patch testing. Clinical prognosis (see analysis query 26): � Factors impacting prognosis could be explored additional to find out if certain individuals might require more intensive, particular person prevention packages than others to extend constructive outcomes of treatment. Infection transmission (see analysis query 29): � More analysis is required to find out the affiliation between dermatitis and infection transmission. Reports of transmission of well being care�associated infections should include information on whether or not dermatitis of the hands is indicated as a source of transmission. Furthermore, to determine an evidence base for the affiliation between dermatitis and transmission, these reviews should contemplate reporting how many individuals had been screened and how many had dermatitis (both recognized or newly detected based on the outbreak investigation). The type of screening used also needs to present genetic typing to extend confidence of the epidemiological link for transmission. Recommendations for the Prevention, Detection and Management of Occupational Contact Dermatitis 2019 ninety nine Appendix A: Infection Prevention and Control Practices for Occupational Contact Dermatitis Table 18. Irritants and Allergens Encountered in High-Risk Occupations Occupation Irritants Allergens Artificial fertilizers, cleaners, diesel oil, Animal feed, barley, cement, vegetation, pesticides, oats, rubber, Agriculture workers disinfectants, gasoline, pesticides, vegetation veterinary medications, wood preservatives and grains Artists Clay, plaster, solvents Colophony, dyes, epoxy resin, pigments, turpentine Automobile and plane Cutting oils, hand cleansers, paints, Cobalt, chromates, epoxy and dimethacrylate, nickel, rubber business workers solvents Ammonium persulfate, benzoyl peroxide, dyes, essential oils, flavours, Bakers and confectioners Detergents, flour lemon, orange, spices Bartenders Detergents, moist work Flavours, lemon, lime, orange Bookbinders Glues, solvents Glues, leathers, resins Butchers Detergents, meat, waste Nickel, sawdust Cabinet makers, and Detergents, glues, solvents, thinners, wood Colophony, glues, stains, turpentine, varnishes, woods carpenters preservatives Preservatives (e. The most typical publicity is moist work, including frequent hand washing and gloving, which may improve the chance of irritant contact dermatitis. Cleaning chemical compounds, cytotoxic drugs and bloodborne pathogens are also widespread exposures. For improved minimize and penetration protection there may be a loss of guide dexterity. Even for gloves of the identical materials, protection may be influenced by thickness and manufacturing quality. Maintaining skin integrity is the important thing to prevention for each buying and transmitting microorganisms. Exposure Risks and Possible Outcomes Exposure Risks Possible Outcomes Cleaning brokers, detergents, disinfectants, foods, Irritant contact dermatitis hand cleansers, warmth, perspiration, moist work Local anesthetics, antibiotics, antiseptics, dental Allergic contact dermatitis and allergic contact supplies, excipients and fragrances in hand care urticaria from latex in rubber gloves products, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, liquid chloroxylenol, local anesthetics, phenothiazines, preservatives (e. Bloodborne pathogen exposures might require further issues for glove choice: � For tasks with excessive threat of glove punctures (e. The puncture probes used in these checks lack the sharp, cutting fringe of a hypodermic needle. Recommendations for the Prevention, Detection and Management of Occupational Contact Dermatitis 2019 106 C. This applies include: carcinogenicity, primarily to pharmacy, nursing or others handling cytotoxic � Wear chemotherapy teratogenicity or different brokers (e. Gloves) Recommendations for the Prevention, Detection and Management of Occupational Contact Dermatitis 2019 a hundred and ten C. Recommendations for the Prevention, Detection and Management of Occupational Contact Dermatitis 2019 112 Appendix D: Glove Selection Checklist D. Good becoming characteristics � obtainable in numerous sizes � straightforward to placed on (don) and take away (doff) � fit snugly around the wrist to be used with a gown � have extended cuff size as wanted (e. Barrier integrity � meet requirements based on publicity threat evaluation � acids and bases, salts, alcohols, oils and greases � cytotoxics � moist work � blood and bodily fluids � physical forces (cuts, punctures [needles or blunt objects], friction) � anticipate length of use (e. Recommendations for the Prevention, Detection and Management of Occupational Contact Dermatitis 2019 113 � Powder-free must have less than two milligrams of powder per glove and must have less than 50 components per million of protein per glove. Recommendations for the Prevention, Detection and Management of Occupational Contact Dermatitis 2019 114 Appendix E: Cotton Glove Liner Selection Guide Gloves may be considered a hazard contributing to occupational contact dermatitis when allergic reactions to glove elements (e. Long-length carrying of occlusive gloves might contribute to moisture within the 104 glove (sweating) which can have a unfavorable effect on skin barrier perform that could be improved with carrying cotton glove liners. Individuals with allergic contact dermatitis or irritant contact dermatitis might benefit from using cotton glove liners worn beneath the task glove (see Figure eleven). For cotton glove liners to be reused, they must be classified as reusable and be reprocessed according to producers instructions. Recommendations for the Prevention, Detection and Management of Occupational Contact Dermatitis 2019 115 Appendix F: Screening and Severity Assessment Tools A variety of screening instruments (see Table 22) and severity evaluation instruments (see Table 23) had been recognized within the review of literature for this report. Occupational Contact Dermatitis Screening Tools Used in Identified Studies Questionnaire/Survey Acronym Description Nichol et al. Hand Self-reported or utilized by an occupational well being nurse, this Dermatitis Screening tool features a picture information to help in appropriately Tool classifying skin condition into three classes: regular skin, gentle hand dermatitis and reasonable/extreme hand dermatitis. Recommendations for the Prevention, Detection and Management of Occupational Contact Dermatitis 2019 116 Table 23. Recommendations for the Prevention, Detection and Management of Occupational Contact Dermatitis 2019 117 Appendix G: Quality-of-Life Measurement Tools A variety of quality-of-life measurement instruments had been recognized within the review of literature for this report (see Tables 24 and 25). Skindex-29 Self-reported, 29-merchandise questionnaire used to assess well being- associated quality of life in sufferers with skin illness. Includes questions on burden of symptoms, social and physical perform, and emotional responses.

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The result was that for ladies in these societies menopause turned a time free from taboos and restrictions buy glucovance 5mg otc diabetes care club, relief from menstruation and freedom from childbirth cheap glucovance 5 mg online diabetes type 2 recipes breakfast. Early menopause was thought to be due to a lady having many kids and hence was because of the using up of blood by giving start so typically. In rural Greek society, problematic signs have been solely anticipated if a lady skilled menopause before the age of forty and again, this was associated with blood; the retention of unclean blood was thought to be due to off-time menopause as cleansing had not taken place. The Greek women reported instances of vasomotor signs, headaches, insomnia, irritability and melancholia, which have been rather more similar to signs reported within the West. Menopause was associated with growing old however the meanings attributed have been very completely different from the illness narrative propounded by Western clinicians. It is possible to think about these constructions as merely the final vestiges of a pre-biomedical epistemology. We may expect isolated societies to have limited interplay with fashionable biomedicine 4Purdah is a spiritual and social institution of female seclusion in Muslim majority international locations and South Asian international locations forty and so have minimal information of the affect of hormones. It is, nevertheless, value asking why Western clinicians have solely centered their explanations on estrogen loss, given that we actually know little or no in regards to the mechanisms of frequent menopausal signs. Hot flush episodes additionally coincide with an increase in catecholamine manufacturing within the mind and a centrally increased activation of the sympathetic nervous system (Genazzani, Gambacciani, Simoncini, & Schneider, 2003). Interestingly, till lately, the dominant discourse of menopause in Japan was associated to the destabilisation of the autonomic nervous system somewhat than to declines in estrogen and, somewhat just like the Greek women, stale blood was associated with varied non-particular signs (Lock, 1998). Locks analysis with Japanese women within the early 1990s, in both rural and urban settings, indicated that there was no equivalent word for menopause, the word konenki being used as a protracted interval beginning at about forty years of age and continuing into the mid-50s. Konenki was construed as a time when the body lost its stability but it was conceived of as a pure part, which could be skilled by both men and women with the signs being completely different because of organic variations (Lock, 1994). Instead, both clinicians and women attributed headaches and shoulder stiffness to konenki, and Lock concluded that menopause was a lot less medicalised in Japan compared with the West. However, these constructions could also be altering as Western concepts start to have an effect on the aging of ladies in Japan. More latest analysis indicated that there was no significant distinction within the incidence of flushes for Japanese and Australian women (Anderson, Yoshizawa, Gollschewski, Atogami, & Courtney, 2004). This could also be due to altering food plan and way of life, larger media protection of menopause and in addition the promotion of hormone alternative remedy by major pharmaceutical companies within the 1990s (Melby et al. A comparability of ladies in Germany and Papua New Guinea additionally indicated that completely different expectations associated to completely different patterns of signs (Kowalcek, Rotte, Banz, & Diedrich, 2005). Disturbances have been anticipated in both cultures however there have been qualitative variations. Hot flushes have been most important to the German women, whereas the assemble of menopause for ladies in Papua New Guinea involved aging and a basic fear of bodily sickness. These expectations appeared to affect the actual expertise of menopause, with German women reporting a higher incidence of hot flushes and Papuan New Guinean women reporting higher incidences of depression and joint and muscular aches. There was additionally a distinction within the proportion of ladies in each tradition who made constructive attributions to forty one menopause: 67. In summary, the variations reported within the incidence of signs could also be due to all kinds of influences: some organic, corresponding to pure variation of hormone profiles and reproductive operate; some cultural, corresponding to food plan, way of life, attitudes to womens roles and sensitivity to reporting signs; and a few methodological. Cross-cultural analysis is beset by difficulties because of linguistic variations, using completely different measurement devices and completely different intervals of recall. Culture impacts us over the entire lifespan and, without exception, the socio-cultural context has a deep-seated impact on the which means and expertise of menopause (Melby et al. Multiple social constructions within the West: contradictions and confusion There has been a basic consensus that within the West menopause has too typically been construed negatively (Chrisler & Ghiz, 1993; Kaufert, Boggs, Ettinger, Woods, & Utian, 1998; McKinley, 2006; Ussher, 2011) and medicalised as a illness that can be efficiently treated by the administration of appropriate hormone replacements (Studd, 2010; Utian, 2005). Entry into menopause is routinely associated with the top of fertility, old age (Gergen, 2009), turning into less enticing (Dillaway, 2005), being less sexually desirable (Dennerstein, Dudley, & Burger, 2001) and in some instances turning into mentally disturbed. Estok and OToole (1991) commented that there are lots of examples of stigmatised meanings of menopause and recount a newspaper article from 1977 in regards to the female mayor of Chicago, Jane Byrne, who was criticised for speaking out in opposition to corruption of the political machine. In the same article, the journalist evinces concern that you wouldnt want a president of the bank making a mortgage underneath these raging hormonal influences. Such descriptions of what can happen to women during menopause are worrying however, in reality, womens attitudes and beliefs about menopause are extremely numerous, may be constructive and are often contradictory. Liao & Hunter (1995) found a diversity of beliefs however most ladies, when requested, have been 42 impartial or constructive about menopause and solely sixteen. Moreover, these beliefs may be moderated by actual expertise and information of the menopause. Liao and Hunter (1995) found that there were very high levels of confusion and incorrect information about menopause when they administered the Knowledge of Menopause questionnaire, and solely 27% of ladies rated their information pretty much as good. What is the taxonomy of those beliefs and to what extent do these beliefs affect the expertise of menopause There is settlement that holding adverse beliefs about menopause correlates with reporting extra signs and larger severity of signs. It is, in fact, difficult to assess the path of affect; holding adverse attitudes might result in extra severe signs or having a nasty expertise of menopause may result in adverse attitudes. Data from the Massachusetts Womens Health research indicated that ladies with adverse attitudes previous to menopause had a higher frequency of hot flush reporting on reaching the menopause (Avis, Crawford, & McKinlay, 1997). They counsel that hot flushes and evening sweats might result in adverse mood over time by activating schemas about aging and the self. This may point out a vicious circle: as soon as adverse schemas about aging are activated, they turn into reinforced by adverse symptom experiences, thus making it increasingly difficult for ladies to cope with vasomotor signs. It is value noting at this point that the variety of studies explicitly investigating attitudes to menopause is relatively small; Ayers et al. Many of the studies have been small forty three scale and qualitative, however three broad teams of social building are apparent: the biomedical, the pure and the ambivalent/confused. This discourse portrays menopause as a decline in estrogen that causes a wide range of issues for the middle aged girl, starting from anticipated vasomotor signs and joint aches to depression, vaginal atrophy, osteoporosis, cardiac issues, decreased libido and cognitive decline (Studd, 2000, p.

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References:

  • http://www.columbia.edu/~iph1/TOC%20from%20Herman-2nd%20Ed-PhysicsOfTheHumanBody.pdf
  • https://vulms.vu.edu.pk/Courses/CHE301/Downloads/401-Biochemistry%20Laboratory%20-%20Modern%20Theory%20and%20Techniques%20(2nd%20Edition)-Rodney%20F.%20Boyer-01360430.pdf
  • https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/som/students/academics/catalog/somcat1112.pdf
  • http://www.inf.ed.ac.uk/teaching/courses/csb/CSB_lecture_2_enzymes.pdf
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