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Aspirates may be and collected in check tube for centrifugation and smear submitted for viral buy glucophage sr 500mg without a prescription, fungal glucophage sr 500 mg generic, mycobacterial and bacterial preparation. When infection is suspected, an extra aspirate fluid, a recent syringe is used for additional aspiration of the is obtained and expressed into a sterile culture tube. Lesions of the thyroid are aspirated with the sterile isotonic saline or foetal calf serum and the rinsed fluid patient both sitting up or mendacity supine with the neck submitted for microbial culture. Aspirated material could also be processed as fingers, while a diffusely enlarged lobe is fixed by asking surgical pathology material by preparing paraffin blocks the patient to swallow and applying two fingers to the base from cell button of the centrifuged deposit. The patient is requested recognition of histologic patterns and can also be used for to avoid swallowing throughout aspiration. Determination of ploidy standing and A custom-made or commercially out there needle guide (such S phase fraction of tumour cells utilizing move cytometry because the Franzen needle guide) could also be used. Alternatively, a enhances the diagnostic and prognostic information out there 16 gauge blunt-tipped venous cannula may function a needle on routine cytology. Transrectal aspiration in acute prostatitis may cause bacteraemia/septicaemia and is contraindicated. Firm inadvisable as it might sometimes provoke excessive fluctua finger stress for 2 to 3 minutes instantly after the tions in blood stress. Transcutaneous aspiration of the lung cells, nuclear and cytoplasmic options of particular person cells or causes pneumothorax in about 20% of cases; most resolve teams of cells, and touch upon the background spontaneously although intercostal intubation could also be morphology. Local dissemination by seeding of functions in lymph node (tuberculous lymphadenitis, malignant cells alongside the needle tract is a rare complication Fig. Knowledge which surgical biopsy specimens are despatched to the of the precise web site from where the aspirate has been obtained laboratory. It is imperative for the coed in pathology in addition to the Imprints may be obtained from draining sinuses or clinician to be acquainted with the benefits and limitations ulcerated areas. The approach is or advise the usage of core biopsy or open biopsy, wherever used in the intraoperative prognosis of malignancy as a applicable. However, with wide acceptance of the (leucocytes) and the platelets (thrombocytes). Their concentration is generally marrow, followed by dialogue on erythroid series of maintained within properly-defined limits except the balance is problems. The problems of leucocytes (myeloid and disturbed because of some pathologic processes. By about Since research of haematopoietic system entails two third month, nevertheless, the liver and spleen are the primary websites of phases?laboratory haematology and scientific haematology, blood cell formation and continue to accomplish that till about 2 weeks understanding of broad ideas of administration of after birth. Haematopoiesis commences in the bone marrow common haematological diseases has been considered by 4th and 5th month and turns into totally active by 7th and desirable a part of the dialogue on these topics. During normal childhood and grownup life, due to this fact, the marrow is the one source of recent blood cells. The non-lymphoid stem cells form in these haematopoietic areas, about 50% of the marrow the circulating erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes and consists of fat (Fig. Monocytes on entering the tissues form a range grownup is, nevertheless, able to reverting to active haemato 285 Figure 12. Approximately 50% of the delicate tissue of the bone consists of haematopoietic tissue and 50% is fatty marrow. The stem cells, after a series of divisions, differentiate into two kinds of progenitors?lymphoid (immune system) stem cells, and non-lymphoid or myeloid (trilineage) stem cells. The spleen and liver and monocytes), erythroid progenitors (producing purple cells), can even resume their foetal haematopoietic function in certain and megakaryocytes (because the source of platelets). The develop pathologic circumstances and is known as extramedullary ment of mature cells. The stem cells have the aptitude of maintaining their progeny by self-replication. This confirming a prognosis suspected on scientific examination or precept forms the basis of bone marrow (or stem cell) trans on the blood movie. A peripheral blood smear examination, plantation performed for various haematologic diseases. The technique entails could be provided by doing a differential rely of a minimum of 500 suction of marrow through a robust, wide bore, quick-bevelled cells (myelogram, Table12. In some circumstances, the needle fitted with a stylet and an adjustable guard in order marrow cells can be utilized for more detailed special checks such to forestall extreme penetration; as an example Salah bone as cytogenetics, microbiological culture, biochemical marrow aspiration needle (Fig. Trephine biopsy is performed by a technique is employed for staining and a stain for iron is straightforward Jamshidi trephine needle by which a core of tissue from performed routinely in order to assess the reticuloendothelial periosteum to bone marrow cavity is obtained (Fig. The tissue is then fixed, delicate decalcified and processed for the marrow movie provides evaluation of cellularity, histological sections and stained with haematoxylin and details of developing blood cells. Trephine biospy is beneficial over megaloblastic, myeloid, lymphoid, macrophages and aspiration since it provides an excellent view of the overall megakaryocytic), ratio between erythroid and myeloid cells, marrow architecture, cellularity, and presence or absence of storage diseases, and for the presence of cells foreign to the infiltrates, however is less priceless than aspiration as far as marrow similar to secondary carcinoma, granulomatous particular person cell morphology is worried. Site Sternum, posterior iliac crest; tibial head in infants Posterior iliac crest 2. Stains Romanowsky, Perls reaction for iron on smears Haematoxylin and eosin, reticulin on tissue sections four. Indications Anaemias, suspected leukaemias, neutropenia Additional indications are: thrombocytopenia, polycythaemia, myeloma, myelosclerosis, aplastic anaemia and in lymphomas, carcinomatosis, lipid storage cases with dry tap on aspiration. Fat/cell ratio : 50:50 Myeloid/erythroid (M/E) ratio : 2-four:1 (mean 3:1) the nucleus at this stage is coarse and deeply basophilic. The Lymphocytes: 5-20% ultimate stage in the maturation of nucleated purple cells is the Plasma cells: < 3% orthochromatic or late erythroblast. There is progressive condensation of the nuclear chromatin which is eventually extruded from the cell on the late erythroblast stage.

Reference/s: [forty one-45] Adiposopathic and/or Fat Mass Pathologies: Genitourinary and Reproductive Manifestations Genitourinary order glucophage sr with american express. Obesity paradoxes are much less paradoxical when seen from the perspective of each fats mass and fats function sixty two Obesity Algorithm buy 500 mg glucophage sr free shipping. Reference/s: [fifty two,fifty three] Anatomic Obesity Paradox Are some fats depots protective while others are paradoxically pathogenic? Reference/s: [11,33,fifty one] Anatomic Obesity Paradox Are some fats depots protective while others are paradoxically pathogenic? Increased fats accumulation within the subcutaneous adipose tissue regions of the arms, legs, shoulders, and neck. Reference/s: [11,33,fifty one] Demographic (Gender and Race) Obesity Paradox Are ladies at a paradoxically decrease age-adjusted cardiovascular disease risk than males? Are some races paradoxically at elevated risk for metabolic ailments for the same amount of physique weight? For the Same Increase in Body Fat, Individuals of Asian Descent Have an Increased Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Disease Compared to Other Races. Reference/s: [11,33,fifty one] Therapeutic Obesity Paradox Can adding physique fats paradoxically deal with metabolic ailments typically associated with an excessive amount of physique fats? Reference/s: [11,33,fifty one] Atherosclerosis Outside-to-In Obesity Paradox What is the function of pericardiac and perivascular adipose tissue in selling atherosclerosis? An Outside-to-in Atherogenic Model Suggests That Adiposopathic Adipose Tissue Surrounding the Heart and Arteries Also Contributes to Atherosclerosis. Adipose tissue surrounding the center and arteries might function a neighborhood supplier of toxic, free fatty acids to the myocardium, and thus contribute to fatty coronary heart. Pericoronary adipose tissue might function a supply web site for oxidized low density lipoproteins in coronary plaques, possibly through transport through the interstitial area seventy nine Obesity Algorithm. An Outside-to-in Atherogenic Model Suggests That Adiposopathic Adipose Tissue Surrounding the Heart And Arteries Also Contributes to Atherosclerosis. Adipose tissue surrounding the center and arteries might secrete elements that alter endothelial cells and performance. Reference/s: [11,33,fifty one] Therapeutic Approach Obesity Paradox How do clinicians greatest navigate the obvious paradox of blame versus accountability in weight problems management? Reference/s: [fifty seven-60] Psychological or Medical Stress: Endocrine Response Emergent Fight or Flight Response (Increased Sympathomimetic Activity). Reference/s: [fifty seven-60] Psychological or Medical Stress: Endocrine Response Submit and Stay Response (Increased hypothalamic pituitary axis activity) Increased Longer-time period Stress Metabolic Responses to Hormone Release Increased Cortisol. Reference/s: [fifty seven-60] Medical or Psychological Stress: Immune Response Acute Response Prolonged Response (Catecholamine-mediated) (Glucocorticoid-mediated). Immune effects may be combined, however in general, might improve immune response: basic, might dysregulate immune? Decreased leukocyte mobilization leukocyte blood concentration with lower in leukocyte blood? Reference/s: [fifty seven-61] Chronic Psychological Stress and Eating Behavior Limbic System Cerebrum (Thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus) (Frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes). Priority alternative: personal, work, or emotional immunopathies might adversely affect the limbic system priorities might overtake priorities relative to diet. Hypothalamic dysfunction (corresponding to with trauma) is an physical activity, and/or health important cause of weight problems. Chronic stress-induced endocrinopathies and immunopathies might adversely affect the cerebrum. While not essentially a stress dysfunction, Gourmand Syndrome is illustrative of how cerebral problems might affect consuming behaviors? Post-harm ardour for gourmand foods Enhanced need for hyperpalatable foods 87 Obesity Algorithm. Reference/s: [fifty seven-60] Adiposopathy Stress Cycle Obesity, Adiposopathy, and Metabolic Disease Worsening Adipose Chronic Stress Tissue Function Behavior Changes, Increasing Body Fat Endocrinopathies, and Immunopathies 88 Obesity Algorithm. Frequency (through questionnaire) shed weight and/or change physique including kind of food or. Reference/s: [66-sixty eight] Physical Activity History Examples of widespread medical circumstances that ought to be evaluated earlier than prescribing an train program. High blood pressure (improve blood pressure with resistance training) ninety three Obesity Algorithm. Reference/s: [66-sixty eight] Routine Preventive Medical Care Ensure particular person with overweight or weight problems receives normal preventive medical care, which, depending upon gender and age, might embrace. Rectal exam and stool for occult blood (sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy as relevant). Reference/s: [sixty nine] Patient Evaluation: Laboratory and Diagnostic Testing 97 obesitymedicine. Fasting proinsulin, C-peptide, and insulin if hyperinsulinemia is suspected as a secondary cause of weight problems. Magnetic-resonance imaging or computed tomography of the mind if a structural lesion of the pituitary/hypothalamus is suspected. Body Compartments: Fat-free Mass versus Lean Body Mass Fat free mass* is whole physique mass much less Lean physique mass* is whole physique mass any physique fats. Cadaver analysis is the one true gold normal for physique composition assessment. Hydrodensitometry (underwater weighing) estimates proportion of physique fats based mostly upon the Archimedes precept that the buoyant drive of a physique immersed in fluid is the same as the weight of the displaced fluid. Energy Expenditure: Components Overall In reasonably sedentary individuals, elements of whole vitality expenditure.

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The Ornish diet is a vegetarian diet primarily based mainly on greens cheap 500mg glucophage sr otc, fruits order 500 mg glucophage sr otc, whole grains, and beans. No animal merchandise are eaten except reasonable quantities of egg whites and nonfat dairy merchandise. It consists of 10% fat, mainly polyunsaturated and monosaturated; 70% to 75% carbohydrates, mainly complicated; 15% to 20% protein; and 5 mg of ldl cholesterol per day. Obtaining protein from vegetation rather than meat or animal merchandise helps to avoid saturated fat and ldl cholesterol. Very low fat diets (roughly sixteen g of fat, 10% of energy from fat) could lead to insuf? Some research have found very low fat diets to be low in vitamins E and B12 and in zinc, but these reviews are inconsistent. He believes that most obesity is brought on by metabolic imbalances ensuing from carbohydrate consumption. According to most traditional nutritional professionals, why do high-protein and high-fat diets trigger weight reduction? Fewer energy are consumed on high-protein and high-fat diets because proteins and fat are extra? In subsequent weeks, weight reduction is from physique fat, at a price of 1 to 2 lb per week. Some authors report few unwanted effects of a high-protein, high-fat diet, whereas others report a number of signi? The dosages of certain medicines could have to be adjusted to compensate for diuresis. There may be an elevated danger of osteoporosis brought on by calcium loss that occurs with extra water loss. Evidence suggests that prime-protein diets are related to certain cancers and heart illness. Is there a difference between the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets within the effectiveness of reducing the risk of heart illness? This is a very controversial query, but a comparability examine done by Dansinger et al. The Atkins and Zone diets tended to lower triglyceride levels extra, whereas the Weight Watchers and Ornish diets lowered low density lipoprotein levels extra. Is there a difference within the adherence rates between the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets? This rather low adherence price is the major trigger for the shortage of long run success with all these diets. Most Americans eat a diet consisting of 35% fat, 50% carbohydrates, and 15% protein. There are extensively varying opinions on which diet is best for lengthy-term weight reduction. Weight loss will occur if the variety of energy consumed is lower than the variety of energy expended. Can blood stress be lowered by reducing salt consumption in folks with normal blood stress and in hypertensive people? Systolic stress decreases roughly 2 mm Hg and diastolic stress decreases almost 1 mm Hg in normotensive people. There appears to be a correlation between the magnitude of salt discount and the drop in blood stress. This is particularly true in subjects with baseline levels of cholesterol higher than 240 mg/dl. Do antioxidant dietary supplements lower the risk of creating heart problems? Observational research involving consumption of foods rich in vitamin E have proven an affiliation with lower illness danger. However, direct proof that the lower in illness was due to the antioxidants has not been proven for either vitamin. Does omega-3 fatty acid consumption alter mortality or the prevalence of cardiovascular occasions or most cancers? However, meta-analysis of a number of randomized management trials found no clear proof that dietary or supplemental omega-3 fatty acids from? These analyses also found no elevated dangers of mortality, cancers, or stroke as a result of consuming omega-3 dietary supplements or increasing omega-3 fatty acid consumption within the diet. Do folic acid dietary supplements with or without vitamin B12 dietary supplements improve cognitive perform or temper? Use fat-free and low-fat milk merchandise, legumes, skinless poultry, and lean meats. Choose fat and oils with 2 g or much less saturated fat per tablespoon, similar to liquid and tub margarines and canola, olive, corn, safflower, and soybean oils. Limit consumption of foods high in energy or low in nutrition, similar to soft drinks and sweet. Limit foods high in saturated fat (lower than 10% of total energy), trans fat (lower than 3% of total energy), and/or ldl cholesterol (lower than 300 mg/day for basic public, 200 mg/day for these with heart illness or diabetes), similar to full-fat milk merchandise, tropical oils, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and egg yolks. To preserve weight, balance the variety of energy consumed with the quantity you use each day.

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Specifically generic glucophage sr 500mg with amex, they need to be informed that although absolutely the danger could also be low order glucophage sr with amex, planned house start is related to a twofold to threefold elevated danger of neonatal demise when compared with planned hospital start. Importantly, girls should be knowledgeable that the appropriate selection of candidates for house start; the supply of a licensed nurse?midwife, licensed midwife, or physician working towards inside an built-in and controlled well being system; prepared access to session; and assurance of secure and well timed transport to close by hospitals are crucial to decreasing perinatal mor tality charges and reaching favorable house start outcomes. Underwater start occurs both intentionally or accidentally after water immersion for labor, a procedure promoted primarily as a means of lowering maternal discomfort. Numerous case reviews have related underwater start with respiratory misery, hyponatre mia, infections, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, ruptured umbilical cords, seizures, tachycardia and fever (associated to water temperature of the bathtub), and near drowning in newborns or fetuses. However, a nonobstetric condition, such as highly transmissible infectious Intrapartum and Postpartum Care of the Mother 171 diseases (eg, varicella), is greatest treated in another space of the hospital. The obstet ric division ought to establish insurance policies, in session with different hospital items or personnel, for coordinated care of pregnant girls. Departments ought to agree on the conditions that are greatest treated within the labor and supply space and people who should be treated in different hospital care items. Qualified obstetric care suppliers ought to consider patients with medical or surgical conditions that would moderately be expected to cause obstetric complications. The obstetric division also ought to establish insurance policies for the admission of nonobstetric patients according to state rules. Federal and state rules handle the management and remedy of patients in hospital acute-care areas, including labor and supply (see also Appendix G). Written departmental insurance policies relating to triage of patients who come to a labor and supply space should be reviewed periodically for compliance with applicable rules. A pregnant girl who involves the labor and deliv ery space should be evaluated in a well timed fashion. Obstetric nursing workers could carry out this initial analysis, which ought to minimally embrace assessment of the next. Uterine contractions the accountable obstetric supplier should be knowledgeable promptly if any of the next findings are present or suspected. A affected person with a transmissible an infection should be admitted to a site where isolation methods could also be adopted according to hospital policy. If a girl has received prenatal care and a current examination has con firmed the conventional progress of pregnancy, her admission analysis could also be lim ited to an interval historical past and physical examination directed on the presenting condition. If no new danger components are found, consideration could also be focused on the fol lowing historic components. Use of any treatment Serologic testing for hepatitis B virus surface antigen could also be necessary, as described in Chapter 10. Social issues, such as poverty and household conflict, also could have an effect on patients well being. Routine obstetric display ing exams (eg, hemoglobin degree, blood sort, and Rh issue), social intervention, and extra schooling could also be needed inside this limited period. Women with unidentified alcohol or drug dependence typically opt for early postpartum discharge or depart the hospital in opposition to medical advice putting themselves and their infants at risk. If no complications are detected throughout initial assessment within the labor and supply space and if contraindications have been dominated out, certified nursing personnel could carry out the initial pelvic examination. When the affected person has been examined and directions relating to her management have been given and famous on her medical report, all necessary consent types should be signed and included into the medical report. If electronic medical information are used, the electronic prenatal information should be accessible. Consideration should be given to offering periodic updates to the prenatal medical report on file. Policies should be developed to guarantee expeditious preparation of blood products for transfusion if the affected person is at elevated danger of hemorrhage or if the need arises. At all occasions within the hospital labor and supply space, the protection and nicely-being of the mom and the fetus are the first concern and accountability of the obstetric workers. The girl ought to have the choice to keep off the bed through the early stages of labor, to ambulate, and to relaxation in a snug chair so long as the fetal status is reassuring. Practices such as showers dur ing labor, placement of intravenous lines, use of fetal heart fee monitoring, and restrictions on ambulation should be reviewed in departmental insurance policies. These insurance policies ought to think about physicians preferences in addition to patients desires for consolation, privacy, and a way of participation. Likewise, using drugs for reduction of pain throughout labor and supply ought to rely upon the needs and desires of the lady. Obstetric division insurance policies ought to embrace suggestions for transmitting to the nursery those maternal and fetal historic and laboratory knowledge which will have an effect on the care of the new child. Information on conditions which will affect neonatal care should be communicated, as nicely. The lack of such knowledge, maybe because of a lack of Intrapartum and Postpartum Care of the Mother one hundred seventy five prenatal care, also should be made identified to the nursery personnel. The physi cian who will look after the new child should be identified on the maternal medi cal report (see Appendix A). Health care professionals who provide anesthesia should be notified of women who could also be at important danger of complications from anesthetic procedures (eg, girls with hypertension, morbid obesity, or receiving anticoagulation). This could require two or extra cervical examinations that are separated by an adequate period of time to observe change. Even a nicely-ready girl could arrive on the hospital labor and supply space earlier than true labor has begun.

These suggested localized tissue hypoxia glucophage sr 500 mg without prescription, increased acute inflammatory cascade discount glucophage sr generic, and lowered pH (acidosis) (see table 2). Trigger factors, then again, are discreet nodular tetherings within the myofascial tissues, which trigger a particular and reproducible referred pain sample when stimulated. Fibromyalgia means pain within the fibrous, connective and tendinous tissues of the body. Like myofascial set off factors, pain arises from the connective tissues, muscular tissues, tendons and ligaments. Unlike set off point manifestation, fibromyalgia is believed to have a systemic origin. Unlike set off factors, which trigger a particular and reproducible sample of referral, sufferers with fibromyalgia describe that they ache throughout (although some do describe localized tender spots). Unlike fibromyalgia factors, set off factors have been successfully photographed utilizing electron microscopy. Table 3: Some basic differences between fibromyalgia and set off factors (Juhan, 1987). Trigger Points and Trigger Point Formation 29 Nutritional and Biochemical Factors Simons et al. Fibre Type and Trigger Point Manifestation All muscular tissues contain a mix of kind 1 and sort 2 fibres (Janda, 1986 and Lewit, 1999). This has a direct correlation as to how chronic symptoms may develop if left untreated. Type 1 fibres are postural, and have a tendency to reply to stress or overuse by shortening and changing into hypertonic. A set off point in a muscle with a high proportion of kind 1 fibres may take longer to reply to remedy. Type 2 fibres are built for explosive, quick-time period activity and have a tendency to become weak, atrophic and hypertonic beneath chronic or sustained endurance. A set off point in a muscle with a high proportion of kind 2 fibres may reply more rapidly to remedy. Postural muscular tissues are likely to have a larger proportion of kind 1 fibres, which as discussed, may lead to a more resistant kind of set off point. It is a incontrovertible fact that within the developed world, many occupations involve prolonged sitting, often at a computer screen. Ergonomics is a booming business, specializing in the interactions between folks and their working environments nonetheless, not all work places can afford to implement proper ergonomic interventions. For many individuals, lengthy and monotonous days spent at a computer monitor often lead to chronic and mal-adapted postures. Trigger factors are common within the following postural constructions: upper trapezius, levator scapulae, sternocleidomastoideus, erector spinae, musculo-ligamentous apparatus of the lumbar backbone, gluteus medius, gastrocnemius/soleus complex. Junda (1996) recorded the two commonest crossover postural strain patterns, upper and decrease. Myers (2001) has additional explored and developed these observations in his seminal guide, Anatomy Trains (Churchill Livingstone). These myofascial strain patterns have a profound effect on the pathogenesis and chronicity of set off point improvement. In such cases, pain is often reported within the neck, shoulder, chest and thoracic backbone (these areas are sometimes restricted). Even the slightest of gross movements requires the co-ordinated contraction of tens of millions of sarcomeres. The sliding process requires: a) an initializing stimulation or impulse from an area motor nerve, b) energy and c) calcium ions. Physiology of Movement When the brain desires to move a muscle, it fires a message through a motor nerve. Calcium ions inhabit the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which is discovered within the sarcoplasm of skeletal muscle. Trigger Point Development Trigger factors manifest the place sarcomeres and extrafusal motor end plates become over-energetic. Motor End Plate Theory Whatever the stimulus, the actin and myosin myofilaments cease sliding over one another. Recent electrophysiological investigations of set off factors reveals phenomena which can point out that the electrical activity of energetic set off factors arises from dysfunctional extrafusal motor end plates somewhat than from muscle spindles. This sustained dysfunction and sarcomere contraction results in native intracellular chemical changes together with: Trigger Points and Trigger Point Formation 33. Production of inflammatory agents, which sensitize native autonomic and nociceptive (pain) fibres. If this example is allowed to proceed over a significant time period, the above changes lead to a vicious cycle. They suggested that the body attempts to resolve sarcomere and end plate failure (outlined above) by changing the blood provide to the sarcomere (vasodilation). One additional results of this anomalous situation is the migration of localized acute and chronic inflammatory cells. Inflammation is a cascade; this cascade mechanism starts to occur around the dysfunctional sarcomere. Inflammation brings with it sensitizing substances corresponding to substance P, a peptide current in nerve cells, which will increase the contractions of gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but in addition causes vasodilation. This has the effect of stimulating both native (small) pain fibres and native autonomic fibres. This in flip results in increased acetylcholine manufacturing and therefore a vicious cycle.

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  • https://www.cc-seas.columbia.edu/sites/dsa/files/handbooks/Medical%20School%20Requirements%20FINAL.pdf
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